Marine sedimentary units in the lower Shyok area were deposited during early to late Cretaceous time (Aptian - Albian) in transgressive and regressive cycles. Abundance of freshwater gastropods and fishes indicate an entity of a river, in the Kashmir Valley. The Himalayan foothill zone witnessed neotectonic activity. The Higher Himalayan Crystallines in Garhwal consists of pelites, psammites; granodiorite, granite and basalts. Rocks of Pokheri-Garhwal Himalaya consist of four tectonometamorphic episodes. The Almora Shear Zone was affected by pre-Himalayan regional metamorphism and Himalayan dynamic metamorphism. The Bhimtal volcanics in Kumaun suggest tholeiitic nature of basaltic parent. The Kumaun Siwalik region witnessed a mass movements triggering the rockfall and associated debris flow. Asymmetric pressure shadows and rotated porphyroclasts, imply that the pressure solution, and dynamic recrystallisation resulted into mylonitisation and nappe movement. The Garhwal Himalaya was severely affected by debris flow, slides, slumps and falls followed by erosion. The North Almora Thrust (NAT) in Garhwal experienced rotation exemplified by the vertical folds. The Nagaland-Manipur area consists of Oceanic Island Arc, Continental Island Arc, Active Continental Margin and Passive Margin setting. The Banderdewa -Itanagar is characterised by landslides i.e. transnational and rotational, wedge failure. Transtensional Basin in Oblique Subduction Margin in Imphal Valley was affected by shear couple deformation. The Higher Himalaya is comprised of metamorphic rocks derived from sedimentary and igneous parentage.
Dr. P.S. Saklani (b.28.8.1941) is Professor of Geology at the University of Delhi for the last three decades, Formerly he was the Vice Chancellor of HNB Garhwal University, Uttaranchal from 1999 to 2001 and the Chairman of the Commission for Scientific and Technical Terminology, Govt. of India from 1994-1998. He was elected as President of Earth System Sciences of the 85th Session of the Indian Science Congress in 1997-98. Prof. Saklani has been a recipient of several awards (e.g. Consulting Editor of American Biographical Institute, Releigh, U.S.A.; 21st Century Award; U.P. Ratna Award etc.). He has authored four original books and published 56 research papers on Himalayan Geology. He has guided 11 students for Ph.D. and 11 Students for M.Phil. degrees.