Atmospheric carbon dioxide (007) concentration crossed 400 ppm in 2015 from 279 ppm of preindustrial period. Similarly, compared to preindustrial era, the methane (CH) concentration increased from 722 ppb to 1800 ppb and nitrous oxide (N20) concentration from 270 ppb to 323 ppb in 2011. Increasing GHGs concentration in the atmosphere has created radiative imbalance resulting in more energy fromthe sun entering than exiting thetep ofthe earth's atmosphere. All the above, individually and collectively, adversely influence the total agriculture productivity. Increased awareness during 19905 about adverse effect of deforestation and other land-use changes on 002 stock coupled with more emphasis on afforestation has checked rise in atmospheric carbun-di-oxide in the recentyears. Besides the direct adverse impacts of climate change on crop growth and development in arid regions, indirect effects through reduced availability of rain water, increased irrigation demand, soil degradation due to loss of soil organic matter, etc. are very likely to adversely affect the arid agriculture. Altered temperature and precipitation regimes are most likely to change the composition of plant communities. Forage species, particularly perennial grasses, cover large land area and also serve an important role as source and sinks for atmospheric carbon. Considering the importance of changing climate on arid ecosystem, the present compilation, covering all the relevant aspects related to arid agriculture, has twenty-nine extensively reviewed chapters bearing the mark of rich experience of the authors working in this ecosystem since long. The risks related to climate change have been elaborated, and various adaptation and mitigation strategies and policies to combat climate change have also been covered.
Dr. R. K. Bhatt is basically Plant Physiologist having more than 30 years research experience in the fields of Plant Physiology,Natural Resource Management, Climate Change, Agroforestry and Seed Science & Technology. Contribution on plant processes under elevated CO2, carbon sequestration and selection of photosynthetically efficient genotypes is noteworthy. He has published number of research papers in National and International Journals of high impact factors and chapters in books, proceedings, compendium and bulletins. On the basis of his significant contributions he has been awarded Outstanding Team Research Award of ICAR in 2002, Academy for Advancement of Agricultural Science Award of ISPP, New Delhi, presented by Honourable Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam in 2003 and Dr. K. A. Shankar Narayan Memorial Award of CAZRI, Jodhpur in 2004. He was also awarded Fellow of Range Management Society of India (2007), National Institute of Ecology (2008) and Indian Society of Plant Physiology (2008). He has guided six students for their Ph.D. He visited UK, USA, Denmark, Sweden, Vietnam, China, Rome and Dubai.
Dr. Uday Burman, Principal Scientist (Plant Physiology) at ICAR-CAZRI, Jodhpur has extended his services on physiology of arid zone plants with emphasis on abiotic stresses for past 30 years. Born on 29 January 1959, he passed BSc (Botany, Hons. ) in 1978 from Delhi University. He earned M.Sc. (Plant Physiology) from GBPUA&T Pantnagar and PhD (Plant Physiology) from H.A.U., Hisar. Dr. Burman also visited Nano Research Facility at Washington University at St. Louis (USA) and worked on 'Plant response to nano-particles'. Over the years he has also gained experience in intellectual property, technology management and its commercialization as Incharge Institute Technology Management Unit & as Member Consultancy Processing Cell. He has been Co-Principal Investigator in externally funded multidisciplinary projects from different agencies (AP Cess Fund, Indo-US, National Wasteland Development Board, NAIP on Nanotechnology and National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture). He is life member of ISPP and AZRAI and has published more than 50 research papers, coauthored one bulletin, ten book chapters, four reviews and edited one book. He has reviewed papers from Journal of Plant Physiology, Journal of Nanomaterial, Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, Indian Journal of Plant Physiology and Annals of Arid Zone besides serving as member (editorial board) of AAZ and ISPP.
Dr. D K Painuli, born on 28 September, 1954 in Rishikesh, Uttarakhand is a Soil Physicist by education, training and practice of nearly 40 years standing. He has been trained in various National and International Institutes of repute. After MSc from GBPUA & T, Pantnagar he completed PhD from CSSRI, Karnal. He has worked as Assistant Professor in BAU, Ranchi (1982-84); Postdoctoral Scientist/ Visting Scientist at IRRI, Philippines (1984-1987) and under ICTP - CNR at Istituto per La Chimica del Terreno, Pisa, Italy (1987-1989). He joined ICAR - IISS, Bhopal as Senior Scientist (1990 - 1997) and was Principal Scientist and Project Coordinator of the All India Coordinated Research Project on Tillage/ Soil Physical Constraints (1997-2004). For last more than 11 years he is working at CAZRI, Jodhpur and has headed Divisions of Extension and Training (2004-2007) and Integrated Land Use Management and Farming Systems (2008-2009). Besides Italy and Philippines Dr Painuli has visited IFS, Kandy, Sri Lanka and Michigan University, USA for professional activities. He has more than 100 publications to his credit including research articles, book chapters, technical bulletins, etc. He has been for a long period in the editorial board of Journal of Water Management. Dr Painuli's persistent interest is soil technology with focus on natural resource conservation; currently he is pursuing research on Bio-tillage.
Dr. D.V. Singh is presently working as Sr. Scientist (Agronomy) in Division of Natural Resources and Environment, Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur. He obtained his Masters degree (Agronomy) in 1986 and Ph.D. degree in 1992 from HAU, Hisar. He joined CAZRI, Jodhpur as Scientist (Agronomy) in 1990. He has worked on long-term effects of organic and inorganic nutrient management in pearl millet - mustard sequence and nutrient management in clusterbean based cropping systems. He has worked on pearl millet based cropping systems involving crop sequences (pearl millet - green gram, pearl millet - clusterbean, pearl millet - mustard, pearl millet -isabgol) and intercropping with clusterbean. Irrigation and nutrient management studies in Aloe vera and seed treatment studies in cumin were also conducted. He has also worked on testing, validation/calibration of CERES-Millet, Mustard-GRO and INFOCROP models under arid conditions. He has about 18 research papers, 22 book chapters and three bulletins to his credit. Presently he is engaged in mid-season and end of season yield forecast of pearl millet, sorghum, cotton, wheat and mustard crops in arid Rajasthan and issuing bi-weekly weather based agroadvisories for farmers of five arid districts of Rajasthan.
Dr Ramavtar Sharma graduated from SKN, College of Agriculture, Jobner, Rajasthan and post-graduation and doctorate from IARI, New Delhi in Genetics. He started his career as Assistant Professor in Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner in 1989 and selected Associate professor in 1996 and Professor in 2004. He did his postdoctoral training during 1995-1997, from NRCPB, New Delhi, with fellowship of DBT. Recently, he has joined Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur as Principal Scientist. Dr Sharma has vast experience of working in cytogenetics, genetics, plant breeding and molecular biology. He has published more than 100 research papers and abstracts in national and international journals. He has guided 5 PhD students and 22 MSc students. He developed easy and cheap protocols for DNA isolation, direct PCR, biolistic gun mediated transformation and mutagenesis through microwave. He developed heat, drought and salt tolerant mutants in Vigna aconitifolia and fast growing thick tetraploid somaclones of Aloe vera. Additionally he has worked on molecular characterization, diversity analysis and tagging; and has also identified ESTs associated with heat tolerance in Vigna aconitifolia. Presently he is working on clusterbean improvement.
Dr. S.P.S. Tanwar, born on 20th December, 1974 is an Agronomist of repute having diverse experience of 15 years in research, teaching, extension and policy planning. He has completed his graduation from SKN college of Agriculture Jobner and Post-Graduation and doctorate from Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur. He also got trained in molecular biology at NRC on DNA Fingerprinting, NBPGR, New Delhi. He joined MPUAT as Assistant Professor and worked as Agronomist in AICRP on chickpea at Kota and AICRP on Wheat at Udaipur besides teaching at all levels (2005-2008). Lateron he got selected as Senior Scientist (Agronomy) in ICAR- Central Arid Zone Research Institute, RRS, Pali (2008-12) and presently working at CAZRI, Jodhpur campus. His research work comprises of resource conservation technologies, crop agronomy, climate change and integrated farming system. He has more than 80 publications to his credit including research articles, book chapters, books, Technical bulletins, pamphlets etc. He has also represented India in NPC- APO workshop on farming system in Colombo, Sri Lanka.